Patellar luxation is the condition where the patella luxates out of the femoral trochlear sulcus instead of tracking up and down within it.
Most commonly the patella luxates medially but lateral luxation also occurs.
It can occur in any size or breed of dog but is more common in small breed dogs.
The four commonly performed surgical options available to correct patellar luxation include:
1. Femoral Trochlear sulcoplasty i.e. deepen the trochlear sulcus to constrain the patella and prevent luxation. This is done if the trochlear sulcus is assessed to be too shallow.
2. Tibial tuberosity transposition i.e. re-align the quadriceps mechanism by osteotomy and re-positioning the tibial tuberosity more laterally. This is done if malalignment of the quadriceps mechanism and the femoral trochlear sulcus are present.
3. Medial release i.e. transect the medial soft tissues (joint capsule and/or retinaculum) if they are excessively tight. This is done if medial soft tissue tension prevents the patella from tracking in the trochlear sulcus.
4. Lateral imbrication i.e. tighten the lateral soft tissues (joint capsule and retinaculum) to prevent patellar luxation. This is done if the soft tissues are too loose, but it should not be relied on to correct patellar luxation because future tissue loosening will likely develop if quadriceps alignment or inadequate sulcus depth persist.
To view the full Patellar Luxation Step By Step Guide, please click on the image above.